(Speaker in 2019) Charles is an experienced digital technology business leader with over 20 years’ experience spanning both large corporates and startups, including Blue Shield of California, Informa and Nature Research. Prior to Zapnito, Charles was the Interim Chief Product Officer at Nature Publishing Group where he created their product office and managed their tech stack. Before Nature, Charles was CTO at Informa Business Information where he led a team of 150 on projects related to the acquisition of businesses with a total value of $1b, resulting in $20m of cost savings. While at Informa, Charles also led e-business and technology projects of $100m and oversaw product delivery across complex business informatics, healthcare and financial services product portfolios. At Blue Shield of California, Charles was responsible for a $10m product development portfolio. Charles has worked for both small and large companies.